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Philosophical Foundations of the Anthropological Approach in Post-Classical Science. P. 70–82

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Section: Philosophy, Sociology, Politology

UDC

141.3+37.013.73

Authors

Elena M. Sergeychik
St. Petersburg Academy of Post-Degree Teacher Training;
ul. Lomonosova 11, St. Petersburg, 191002, Russian Federation; e-mail: elena.sergeichik@gmail.com

Abstract

This article analyses the philosophical foundations of the anthropological approach from the perspective of the concept of historical types of rationality: classical, non-classical and post-non-classical. This allows us to clarify the meaning of such concepts, widely used in the humanities, as anthropologism, anthropocentrism, anthropological approach, anthropological principle, and anthropological philosophy. Tracing the evolution of these concepts in the history of European culture, the author focuses on the prerequisites and the development of the anthropological approach in the humanities at the turn of the 19th century. In addition, the paper demonstrates the fundamental difference between classical and nonclassical science, the latter having anthropologism as its fundamental principle. It should be noted that the anthropological approach does not merely focus on the problems of man, but requires their interpretation according to new scientific and philosophical principles. Further, the paper dwells on the formation of philosophical anthropology, dating back to the 1920s. Its representatives – M. Scheler, A. Gehlen, E. Rothacker and M. Landmann – addressed the issue of fundamental differences between man and all the other living things and regarded their philosophical views as scientific. The fact that all major branches of non-classical philosophy (philosophy of life, Neo-Kantianism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, etc.) have adopted the anthropological principle allows us to treat it as an anthropological philosophy. In this regard, the paper analyses such key principles of anthropological philosophy as subjectivity, axiologism, intersubjectivity, communicativeness, etc., which can be viewed as a methodological basis for modern sciences. In conclusion, the author examines key lines of development of pedagogical anthropology, whose promising branches are guided by the principles of philosophical anthropology.

Keywords

philosophy of science, historical types of rationality, anthropological approach, anthropological principle, anthropological philosophy, philosophy of education, pedagogical anthropology
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