Legal and postal addresses of the publisher: office 1410a, 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov

Phone: (818-2) 28-76-18


The Government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and Leaders of the White Movement in Russia: Military- Political Relations in 1918–1919. P. 43–52

Версия для печати

Section: History




Mikhaylov Vadim Viktorovich
Faculty for Humanities, Saint-Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
15 Gastello St., St. Petersburg, 190000, Russian Federation;


This article presents a detailed comprehensive analysis of complex, controversial and sharp differences in the relations between political and military leaders of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the Armed Forces of South Russia in 1918–1919. It describes key political activities of the White movement leaders and Azerbaijani authorities, aimed at preserving and strengthening their positions in this strategic region already struck by the fratricidal Civil War with the active political, economic and military interference from outside that can be labelled as an open armed intervention. Further, the paper looks into the role of the British military occupation administration in Transcaucasia in the events that unfolded in Baku and describes the main goals and objectives of the various sociopolitical movements, parties and groups in Azerbaijan regarding the White movement, especially in South Russia. The policy of Great Britain, one of the major geopolitical players among the allied anti-Bolshevik forces in the Caucasus, is analysed here in terms of the activities of General Thompson, a military governor of Baku given emergency powers. In addition, the author studied the causes of the failure of the military-political strategy of the Armed Forces of South Russia in Azerbaijan, such as the lack of political flexibility of its government and military leaders and the twofaced policy of the former Entente allies. All this allowed the Bolsheviks in the final phase of the Civil War in the Caucasus to achieve military and political success on Azerbaijani soil, annex the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic to Soviet Russia and effectively sovietize it. This article is based on extensive source materials, including those kept in the main historical archives of Azerbaijan.


Civil War in Russia, White movement, Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Fatali Khan Khoyski, A.I. Denikin, Armed Forces of South Russia, Caucasus-Caspian government
Download (pdf, 3.1MB )


  1. Denikin A.I. Ocherki russkoy smuty. T. 4. Vooruzhennye sily Yuga Rossii [Essays on the Russian Turmoil. Vol. 4. Armed Forces of the Russian South]. Berlin, 1925. 248 p.
  2. Yusifzade S.Z. Pervaya Azerbaydzhanskaya respublika: istoriya, sobytiya, fakty anglo-azerbaydzhanskikh otnosheniy [First Azerbaijan Republic: History, Events, Facts of Anglo-Azerbaijani Relations]. Baku, 1998. 208 p.
  3. Kashkaev B.O. Grazhdanskaya voyna v Dagestane 1918–1920 gg. [Civil War in Dagestan in 1918–1920]. Moscow, 1976.
  4. Isgenderli A. Realities of Azerbaijan: 1917–1920. N.Y., 2011. 236 p.
  5. Agamalieva N., Khudiev R. Azerbaydzhanskaya Respublika. Stranitsy politicheskoy istorii 1918–1920 gg. [The Azerbaijan Republic. Chapters of Political History 1918–1920]. Baku, 1994. 112 p.
  6. Mikhaylov V.V., Lobanov V.B. Ob”edinit’ ves’ Severnyy Kavkaz na osnove edinstva Rossii. (Doklad generalmayora B.N. Lazareva glavnokomanduyushchemu Dobrovol’cheskoy armii general-leytenantu A.I. Denikinu. 1918 g.) [To Unite the Whole of the North Caucasus on the Basis of All-Russian Unity. (Major General B.N. Lazarev’s Report to the Chief of the Volunteer Army, Lieutenant General A.I. Denikin. 1918)]. Istoricheskiy arkhiv, 2011, no. 2, pp. 148–164.
  7. Volkov S.V. Flot v Beloy bor’be [Fleet in the White Struggle]. Moscow, 2002. 608 p.
  8. Balaev A. Sozdanie Azerbaydzhanskoy Demokraticheskoy Respubliki – pervyy opyt po vnedreniyu evropeyskoy modeli natsional’nogo gosudarstva na Vostoke [Establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic: The First Experience of Implementing the European Model of a Nation-State in the East]. Azerbaydzhanskaya Demokraticheskaya Respublika: sb. st., posvyashch. 90-letiyu Pervoy respubliki [The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic: Collected Papers Dedicated to the 90th Anniversary of the First Republic]. Moscow, 2008. 136 p.
  9. Mikhaylov V.V. 1919 god v sud’be nezavisimoy Azerbaydzhanskoy Demokraticheskoy Respubliki [The Year 1919 in the Destiny of the Independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic]. 1919 god v sud’bakh Rossii i mira: shirokomasshtabnaya Grazhdanskaya voyna i interventsiya v Rossii, zarozhdenie novoy sistemy mezhdunarodnykh otnosheniy: sb. materialov nauch. konf. [The Year 1919 in the Destinies of Russia and the World: The Large-Scale Civil War and Intervention in Russia, Emergence of a New System of International Relations: Proc. Int. Sci. Conf.]. Arkhangelsk, 2009. 304 p.