Legal and postal addresses of the publisher: office 1410a, 17 Naberezhnaya Severnoy Dviny, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov

Phone: (818-2) 28-76-18


Russian Gold in Sweden: The Unread Pages of History. P. 23–34

Версия для печати

Section: History




Karelin Vladimir Anatolyevich
Murmansk Institute of Economics – Branch of Saint-Petersburg Academic University
7 Khalatina St., Murmansk, 183031, Russian Federation;
Nielsen Jens Petter
Institute of History and Religious Studies,
UiT The Arctic University of Norway
NO-9037, Tromsø, Norway;
Repnevsky Andrey Viktorovich
Institute of Social, Humanitarian and Political Sciences,
Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov
2 prosp. Lomonosova, Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation;


This article is devoted to one of the obscure aspects of the White diplomatic activity in Scandinavia during the final period of the Russian Civil War. It is supplemented with an appendix of previously unpublished archival documents, discovered by the authors in the Department of Manuscripts (Special Reading Room) at the National Library of Norway, Oslo. The authors focus on the history of Russia’s gold stocks, which due to the course of events happened to appear in Sweden and which in 1921 were transferred to banks in the USA. The authors pay attention to the fact that this transaction was carried through by an experienced and energetic Russian diplomat K.N. Gulkevich (1865–1935) and a Norwegian professor of Slavic languages Olaf Broch (1867–1961). Konstantin Gulkevich played a key role in this financial transaction. He had held the position as a Russian envoy in Christiania (present-day Oslo) from February 1916 to May 1917. During this period, Gulkevich set himself the aim of promoting partnership and rapprochement between Russia and Norway and made great efforts to tune Norwegian public opinion in favour of Russia. Olaf Broch – a Russophile, Slavic philologist, interpreter and a public man – helped Gulkevich to establish contacts with political, business and intellectual elites in Norway. Gulkevich was appointed Russian envoy to Sweden after the February Revolution by Pavel Milyukov, the first Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Provisional Government. After the October Revolution, Gulkevich refused to recognize the new Soviet government. During the Civil War in Russia, Gulkevich’s activity in Sweden aimed at supporting the White movement against the Bolsheviks. After the defeat of the White movement, the leaders of the White diplomacy in the West faced the prospects of legitimate claims by representatives of Soviet Russia as well as by Entente creditors of Tsarist Russia. Therefore, they made strenuous efforts to hide the Russian gold reserves.


history of Civil War in the North and Northwest Russia, “White diplomats” in Norway and Sweden in 1921, Russian gold in Sweden, Konstantin Nikolaevich Gulkevich, Professor Olaf Broch
Download (pdf, 3.1MB )


  1. Budnitskiy O.V. Den’gi russkoy emigratsii. Kolchakovskoe zoloto. 1918–1957 [Russian Emigration’s Money. Kolchak’s Gold. 1918–1957]. Moscow, 2008. 512 p.
  2. Katasonov V.Yu. Zoloto v ekonomike i politike Rossii [Gold in the Russian Economy and Politics]. Moscow, 2009. 286 p.
  3. Latyshev I.A. Kak Yaponiya pokhitila rossiyskoe zoloto [How Japan Stole Russian Gold]. Moscow, 1996. 96 p.
  4. Sirotkin V.G. Zarubezhnoe zoloto Rossii [Russia’s Gold Abroad]. Moscow, 1999. 464 p.
  5. Sirotkin V.G. Zarubezhnye klondayki Rossii [Russian Klondikes Abroad]. Moscow, 2003. 252 p.
  6. Sirotkin V.G. Zoloto Kolchaka [Kolchak’s Gold]. Moscow, 2010. 256 p.
  7. Lundstrem R. Rossiyskoe zoloto v Shvetsii [Russian Gold in Sweden]. Novaya i noveyshaya istoriya, 2002, no. 3, pp. 227–229.
  8. Karelin V.A. Professor Olaf Brok – “agent” russkogo vliyaniya v Norvegii? (iz istorii russko-norvezhskikh kul’turnykh i obshchestvenno-politicheskikh svyazey nachala XX stoletiya) [Professor Olaf Broch – an “Agent” of Russian Influence in Norway? (a Glimpse of the Russian-Norwegian Cultural and Sociopolitical Relations in the Early 20th Century)]. Vestnik Severnogo (Arkticheskogo) federal’nogo universiteta. Ser.: Gumanitarnye i sotsial’nye nauki, 2013, no. 1, pp. 5–15.
  9. Pilkin V.K. V Beloy bor’be na Severo-Zapade: Dnevnik 1918–1920 [The White Struggle in the North-West: Diary 1918–1920]. Moscow, 2005. 656 p.
  10. Smolin A.V. Beloe dvizhenie na Severo-Zapade Rossii 1918–1920 gg. [The White Movement in the North-West of Russia in 1918–1920]. St. Petersburg, 1998. 439 p.
  11. Smolin A.V. Russkoe diplomaticheskoe predstavitel’stvo v Shvetsii i belye pravitel’stva Rossii [Russian Diplomatic Mission in Sweden and White Russian Governments]. Sankt-Peterburg i strany Severnoy Evropy: materialy sed’moy ezhegod. nauch. konf. [St. Petersburg and the Nordic Countries: Proc. 7th Annual Sci. Conf.]. 13–14 April 2004. St. Petersburg, 2006, pp. 22–27.
  12. Marushevskiy V.V. Belye v Arkhangel’ske [The White Guard in Arkhangelsk]. Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossii: Voyna na Severe [The Russian Civil War: The War in the North]. Moscow, St. Petersburg, 2004, pp. 12–230.
  13. Howard E. Theatre of Life: Life Seen from the Stalls 1903–1936. London, 1936. 663 p.